Papers with references to CRD 2021


1. Generation possibility of gamma-ray glows induced by photonuclear reactions

Authors: G. Diniz 1,*, I.S. Ferreira 2 , Y. Wada 1 , T. Manoto1


Abstract: Relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) imply a large multiplication of high energy electrons (∼1 MeV). Two factors are necessary for this phenomenon: a high electric field sustained over a large distance and an energetic particle to serve as a seed. The former sustains particle energies as they keep colliding and lose energy randomly; and the latter serves as a multiplication starting point that promotes avalanches. RREA is usually connected to both terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) and gamma-ray glows...Read more...


2. Toward a theory of ball lightning occurring in houses and aircraft

Authors: John J. Lowke a,* , Wilfried Heil b, Eugene Tam a, Anthony B. Murphy a

Abstract: Gas discharge properties have been calculated, considering electrons, negative ions, positive ions and the metastable singlet delta oxygen molecules, to assess the possibility of ball lightning resulting from an electrical discharge. It is found that if the metastable molecules have very large densities of the order of 1017 cm− 3, a stable ball-like plasma of electrons, positive ions, negative ions and metastable molecules is obtained, with electron densities of ~1011 cm− 3. The ball can exist independent of the electrodes. There is an equilibrium within the ball between the detachment of electrons from negative ions by the metastables and the re-attachment of electrons to oxygen atoms reforming negative ions...Read more...


3. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes and Other High Energy Atmospheric Phenomena: An Overview

Authors: Paras Manoj Kumar1* and Rani Pooja2

Abstract: Extraordinarily bright events with highly energetic radiation in the form of bursts of hard X-rays and γrays of short durations have been detected in our atmosphere by scientific community routinely during strong thunderstorms and lightning activity. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are very short (< 1 ms) bursts of highly energetic gamma-ray photons which are generated during powerful thunderstorms and have been detected by both airborne as well as ground based experiments. TGFs driven source has been an active area of research since their accidental discovery by Burst and Transient Source Experiment detector, on board the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory in 1994...Read more...


4. Transit of the Sun across constellation Libra and variation of secondary gamma radiation flux in the month of October and November, 2020 at Udaipur, India

Authors: Devendra Pareek1, Prajesh Purohit1

Abstract: Background: During transit of the Sun across the constellation Libra in the month of October and November 2020 we experimentally observed the variation of secondary gamma radiation flux (SGR) at Udaipur (270 43’ 12.00” N, 750 28’ 48.01” E), India. We interpret such variation of SGR flux on the basis of gravitational lensing effect produced by the Sun and constellation Libra, radiation from constellation and gravitational pull-on background radiation by constellation Libra and Sun...Read more...