H. Tsuchiya,1,2 T. Enoto,2,3 K. Iwata,4 S. Yamada,2 T. Yuasa,5 T. Kitaguchi,2 M. Kawaharada,5 K. Nakazawa,6 M. Kokubun,5 H. Kato,2 M. Okano,2 T. Tamagawa,2 and K. Makishima6 ...PHYSICAL REVIEW, 2013
Abstract: We report the first observation of 3–30 MeV prolonged gamma-ray emission that was abruptly terminated by lightning. The gamma-ray detection was made during winter thunderstorms on December 30, 2010, by the Gamma-Ray Observation of Winter Thunderclouds experiment carried out in a coastal area along the Sea of Japan. The gamma-ray flux lasted for less than 3 min, continuously hardening closer to the lightning occurrence...
Authors: Joseph R. Dwyer1, David M. Smith2, Bryna J. Hazelton3, Vrian W. Grefenstette4, Nicole A. Kelley5, Alexander W. Lowell5, Meagan M. Grefenstette4, Meagan M. Schaal6 and Hamid K. Rassoul7
Abstract: We report the observation of two isolated clouds of positrons inside an active thunderstorm. These observations were made by the Airborne Detector for Energetic Lightning Emissions( ADELE), an array of six gamma-ray detectors, which flew on a Gulfstream V jet aircraft through the top of an active thunderstorm in August 2009. ADELE recorded two 511 keV gamma-ray count rate enhancments, 35 seconds apart, each lasting approximately 0,2 seconds...
Authors: V.V. AlekseenkoaD, M. GromushkinbD, D. DzhappuevB, A. U, KudjaevB, O. I. Michailovaa, Yu. V. Stenkinab, V. I. StepanovB, O. B. ShchegolevB, V. P. Sulakovc and I. I. Yashinb
Abstract: The results from the registration and analysis of sporadic variations of atmospheric thermal neutron flux during thunderstorms are reported. Measurments were performed in Moscow and at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory of the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The neutron flux was detected by unscreened scintillation endetectors based on 6LiF + ZnS (Ag) compound...
Authors: V. Alekseenko1, F. Arneodo2, G. Bruno3*, A. Di Giovanni2, W. Fulgione 3,4, D. Gromushkin5, O. Shchegolev6, Yu. Stenkin5,6, V. Stepanov6, V. Sulakov7 and I. Yashin5
Abstract: The production of MeV neutrons during thunderstorms has been the subject of several papers. The first suggestion to our knowledge, of the existence of this phenomenon appeared in Ref. . More recently, some experimental papers have been published regarding neutron detection during thunderstorms at Mt. Aragats...
Authors: A.V. Gurevich, V.P. Antonova, A.P. Chubenko, A.N. Karashtin, O.N.
Kryakunova, V.Yu. Lutsenko, G.G. Mitko, V.V. Piskal, M.O. Ptitsyn, V.A.
Ryabov, A.L. Shepetov, Yu.V. Shlyugaev, W.M. Thu, L.I. Vildanova, K.P.
Abstract: The time structure of neutron count rate enhancement during thunderstorm
is studied. The enhancements take place during the time of atmospheric
discharge. Significant part of neutrons are emitted in short bursts (200-400
µs). Sometimes the emission is well correlated over the space scale 1 km.
Short burst width allows to suppose that neutrons are generated mainly in
a dense medium (probably soil).
Authors: Zhou Xiu-Xlu1, Wang Xin-Jian1, Huang Dai- Hui1, Wu Chao-Yong2
Abstract: Concident study on the intensity change of the ground cosmic rays during thunderstorms is very important for understanding the acceleration mechanism of secondary charged particles caused by atmospheric electric field. It is found, that tyhe strength of the near earth thunderstorm electric field can be up to 1000V/cm or even higher from ARGO-YBJ (where YBJ stands for YAMBAJAN, 4300m a.s.l., Tibet, China) data in 2012...
Authors: Xinjian Wang
1, Xunxiu Zhou
1, Daihui Huang
1, Huanyu Jia
Abstract: It has been found that most of the near-earth thunderstorms electric field strength at YBJ
(4300 m a.s.l., Tibet, China) is within the range of 1000 V/cm according to the ARGO-YBJ experiment. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were performed by using CORSIKA to study the
intensity change of the ground cosmic rays in near-earth thunderstorms electric field. We found
that the number of electrons in secondary particles at YBJ was changed with the strength and polarity of the electric field. In the negative field, the number increases with the increasing electric
Authors: Daihui Huang, Xinjian Wang, Xunxiu Zhou
, Huanyu Jia
Abstract: Studies on energy changes of cosmic ray electron in thunderstorms electric field are
very important to understand the acceleration mechanism of secondary charged particles caused
by electric field. In this paper, Monte Carlo simulations were performed with CORSIKA to study
the energy of cosmic ray electron in two typical electric fields. One is upper than the threshold
field strength resulting in a runaway breakdown process (i.e. the order of 1 kV/cm), the other
is lower than that (i.e. the order of 0.1 kV/cm).
Authors: Karel Kudela∗ , Jan Błecki
Abstract: The main scientific task of JEM-EUSO is to observe the ultra high energy cosmic rays by looking
the atmosphere from space [1, 2, 3, 4]. The detailed description of various sources of the background is important. On the other hand, the study of selected magnetospheric, ionospheric and
atmospheric processes related to temporal and spatial variability of UV (ultraviolet) on the orbit
where JEM-EUSO is supposed to be situated, could be a useful by-product of the main task of the
project (e.g. review ).
Authors: Nicole A. Kelley1
, David M. Smith2, Joseph R. Dwyer3, Michael Splitt4, Steven Lazarus4,
Forest Martinez-McKinney2, Bryna Hazelton5, Brian Grefenstette6, Alexander Lowell1 & Hamid K. Rassoul7
Abstract: Gamma-ray ‘glows’ are long duration (seconds to tens of minutes) X-ray and gamma-ray
emission coming from thunderclouds. Measurements suggest the presence of relativistic
runaway electron avalanches (RREA), the same process underlying terrestrial gamma-ray
flashes. Here we demonstrate that glows are relatively a common phenomena near the tops
of thunderstorms, when compared with events such as terrestrial gamma-ray flashes.
Examining the strongest glow measured by the airborne detector for energetic emissions, we
show that this glow is measured near the end of a downward RREA, consistent with occurring
between the upper positive charge layer and the negative screening layer above it...
Authors: Devendraa Siingh a,n,1
, R.P. Singh b,1
, Sarvan Kumar b
, T. Dharmaraj a
, Abhay K. Singh b
Ashok K. Singh c
, M.N. Patil a
, Shubha Singh d
Abstract: Recent development in lightning discharges including transient luminous events (TLEs) and global
electric circuit are discussed. Role of solar activity, convective available potential energy, surface temperature and difference of land–ocean surfaces on convection process are discussed. Different processes
of discharge initiation are discussed. Events like sprites and halos are caused by the upward quasielectrostatic fields associated with intense cloud-to-ground discharges while jets (blue starter, blue jet,
gigantic jet) are caused by charge imbalance in thunderstorm during lightning discharges but they are
not associated with a particular discharge flash. Elves are generated by the electromagnetic pulse radiated during lightning discharges. The present understanding of global electric circuit is also reviewed.
Relation between lightning activity/global electric circuit and climate is discussed...
Authors: L. P. Babich*
Abstract: A recently reported laboratory experiment with a high-voltage long discharge in the open atmosphere producing
neutrons “ . . . up to energies above 10 MeV . . . ” [Agafonov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 115003 (2013)] is
critically analyzed. Known elementary processes, namely, nuclear synthesis 2
H ,n) 3
He and 2
H( 14N ,n) 15O,
photonuclear, electrodisintegration n
m A and opposite to the β-decay e−(p+,n)νe reactions, as well as
unconventional mechanisms and the hypothetical increase in the nuclear synthesis cross sections are not capable
of accounting for the neutron generation under conditions of the experiment analyzed. In particular, total energy
yields of reactions 2
H ,n) 3
He and 2
H( 14N ,n) 15O are less than the claimed neutron energy above 10 MeV...
Authors: T. N. G. Trinh,1, ∗ O. Scholten,1, 2 S. Buitink,3, 4 A. M. van den Berg,1 A. Corstanje,4 U. Ebert,5, 6
J. E. Enriquez,4 H. Falcke,4, 7, 8, 9 J. R. H¨orandel,4, 7 C. K¨ohn,10 A. Nelles,4, 11 J. P. Rachen,4
L. Rossetto,4 C. Rutjes,5 P. Schellart,4 S. Thoudam,4 S. ter Veen,4 and K.D. de Vries2
Abstract: The atmospheric electric fields in thunderclouds have been shown to significantly modify the
intensity and polarization patterns of the radio footprint of cosmic-ray-induced extensive air showers.
Simulations indicated a very non-linear dependence of the signal strength in the frequency window of
30-80 MHz on the magnitude of the atmospheric electric field. In this work we present an explanation
of this dependence based on Monte-Carlo simulations, supported by arguments based on electron
dynamics in air showers and expressed in terms of a simplified model. We show that by extending
the frequency window to lower frequencies additional sensitivity to the atmospheric electric field is
Authors: Kevin Jourde1, DominiqueGibert2,3, Jacques Marteau4, Jean de Bremond d’Ars2,
SergeGardien4, ClaudeGirerd4 & Jean-Christophe Ianigro4
Abstract: Usage of secondary cosmic muons to image the geological structures density distribution significantly
developed during the past ten years. Recent applications demonstrate the method interest to
monitor magma ascent and volcanic gas movements inside volcanoes. Muon radiography could be
used to monitor density variations in aquifers and the critical zone in the near surface. However, the
time resolution achievable by muon radiography monitoring remains poorly studied. It is biased by
fluctuation sources exterior to the target, and statistically affected by the limited number of particles
detected during the experiment. The present study documents these two issues within a simple and
well constrained experimental context: a water tower. We use the data to discuss the influence of
atmospheric variability that perturbs the signal, and propose correction formulas to extract the muon
flux variations related to the water level changes...
Abstract: We are happy to announce the launch of the EGU – Solar Terrestrial
division blogs together with other social media webpages where you can
get in touch with us. This is run by a group of enthusiatic volunteers, Koen
Hendrickx (Stockholm University, Sweden), Kamalam Vanninathan
(University of Graz, Austria) and the editor Athanasios Papaioannou
(National Observatory of Athens, Greece)....
Authors: R.U. Abbasi a, M. Abe b, T. Abu-Zayyad a, M. Allen a, R. Anderson a, R. Azuma c,
E. Barcikowski a, J.W. Belz a, D.R. Bergman a, S.A. Blake a, R. Cady a, B.G. Cheon e, J. Chiba f
M. Chikawa g, T. Fujii i
, M. Fukushima i,j
, T. Goto k, W. Hanlon a, Y. Hayashi k, N. Hayashida l
K. Hibino l
, K. Honda m, D. Ikeda i
, N. Inoue b, T. Ishii m, R. Ishimori c, H. Ito n, D. Ivanov a,
C.C.H. Jui a, K. Kadota o, F. Kakimoto c, O. Kalashev p, K. Kasahara q, H. Kawai r
S. Kawakami k, S. Kawana b, K. Kawata i
, E. Kido i
, H.B. Kim e, J.H. Kim a, J.H. Kim s
S. Kishigami k, S. Kitamura c, Y. Kitamura c, V. Kuzmin p, Y.J. Kwon h, J. Lan a,
J.P. Lundquist a, K. Machida m, K. Martens j
, T. Matsuda t
, T. Matsuyama k, J.N. Matthews a,
M. Minamino k, K. Mukai m, I. Myers a, K. Nagasawa b, S. Nagataki n, T. Nakamura u,
T. Nonaka i
, A. Nozato g, S. Ogio k, J. Ogura c, M. Ohnishi i
, H. Ohoka i
, K. Oki i
, T. Okuda v,∗,
M. Ono w, R. Onogi k, A. Oshima x, S. Ozawa q, I.H. Park y, M.S. Pshirkov z,p, D.C. Rodriguez a, , G. Rubtsov p, D. Ryu s
, H. Sagawa i
, K. Saito i
, Y. Saito ae, N. Sakaki i
, N. Sakurai k,
A.L. Sampson a, L.M. Scott aa, K. Sekino i
, P.D. Shah a, F. Shibata m, T. Shibata i
H. Shimodaira i
, B.K. Shin k, H.S. Shin i
, J.D. Smith a, P. Sokolsky a, R.W. Springer a,
B.T. Stokes a, S.R. Stratton a,aa, T.A. Stroman a, T. Suzawa b, M. Takamura f
, M. Takeda i
R. Takeishi i
, A. Taketa ab, M. Takita i
, Y. Tameda l
, H. Tanaka k, K. Tanaka ac, M. Tanaka t
S.B. Thomas a, G.B. Thomson a, P. Tinyakov p,ad, I. Tkachev p, H. Tokuno c, T. Tomida ae,
S. Troitsky p, Y. Tsunesada k, K. Tsutsumi c, Y. Uchihori af, S. Udo l
, F. Urban ad, G. Vasiloff a,
T. Wong a, R. Yamane k, H. Yamaoka t
, K. Yamazaki ab, J. Yang d, K. Yashiro f
, Y. Yoneda k,
S. Yoshida r
, H. Yoshii ag, R. Zollinger a, Z. Zundel
Abstract: The Telescope Array (TA) experiment is designed to detect air showers induced by ultra high energy
cosmic rays. The TA ground Surface particle Detector (TASD) observed several short-time bursts of air
shower like events. These bursts are not likely due to chance coincidence between single shower events.
The expectation of chance coincidence is less than 10−4 for five-year’s observation. We checked the
correlation between these bursts of events and lightning data, and found evidence for correlations in
timing and position. Some features of the burst events are similar to those of a normal cosmic ray air
shower, and some are not. On this paper, we report the observed bursts of air shower like events and
their correlation with lightning...
Authors: Wei Xu,1 Robert A. Marshall,1
and Victor P. Pasko3
Abstract: Recent ground-based measurements at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) have greatly improved our knowledge
of the energetics, fluence, and evolution of X-ray emissions during natural
cloud-to-ground (CG) and rocket-triggered lightning flashes. In this paper,
using Monte Carlo simulations and the response matrix of unshielded detectors in the Thunderstorm Energetic Radiation Array (TERA), we calculate
the energy spectra of X-rays as would be detected by TERA and directly compare with the observational data during event MSE 10-01. The good agreement obtained between TERA measurements and theoretical calculations
supports the mechanism of X-ray production by thermal runaway electrons
during the negative corona flash stage of stepping lightning leaders...
Authors: Yuval Reuveni a, b, c, , Yoav Yair c, Colin Priced, Gideon Steinitze
Abstract: We report coincidences of ground-level gamma-ray enhancements with precipitation events and strong electric fields typical of thunderstorms, measured at the Emillio Segre Cosmic Ray observatory located on the western slopes of Mt. Hermon in northern Israel. The observatory hosts 2×2 '' NaI (TI) gamma ray scintillation detectors alongside a vertical atmospheric electeric field(Ez) mill and conduction current(Jz) plates. During several active thunderstorms that occured near the Mt. Hermon station in October and November 2015...
Authors: Kudela K. (1,3), Chum J. (2), Kollárik M. (1), Langer R. (1), Strhárský I. (1), Baše J. (2)
Abstract: Since March 2014, there is a continuous measurement of secondary cosmic
rays (CRs) by the detector system SEVAN (Space Environmental Viewing and Analysis
Network) at Lomnický štít, altitude 2634 masl. Starting from June 2016, the count rates (1s
resolution) obtained from the three SEVAN detectors and from their coincidences are
available, along with selected meteorological characteristics. Since May 30, 2016 the electric
field measurements have been installed at the same site. Several events with clear increase of
the count rate in the upper detector of SEVAN were observed during the thunderstorms until
September 17, 2016. Examples of these measurements are presented and discussed.
Barometric pressure correction and elimination of low frequency variability from the signal
allows to extract 2 min averaged increases from the data...
Authors: C. Rutjes1
, G. Diniz2
, I. S. Ferreira2
, and U. Ebert1,3
Abstract: Thunderstorms are known to create terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs)
which are microsecond-long bursts created by runaway of thermal electrons
from propagating lightning leaders, as well as gamma-ray glows that possibly are created by relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREA) that can
last for minutes or more and are sometimes terminated by a discharge. In
this work we predict a new intermediate thunderstorm radiation mechanism,
which we call TGF afterglow, as it is caused by the capture of photonuclear
neutrons produced by a TGF. TGF afterglows are milliseconds to seconds
long; this duration is caused by the thermalization time of the intermediate
neutrons. TGF afterglows indicate that the primary TGF has produced photons in the energy range of 10 - 30 MeV; they are nondirectional in contrast
to the primary TGF...
Authors: Nigel Dyer1
Abstract: The steam generator that has been developed by Cavitation Energy Systems generates steam
whose energy is approximately five time greater than the electrical energy used to generate the steam. This
paper proposes that the additional energy comes from the fusion of a minute fraction of the nuclei of
hydrogen atoms in the water molecules. The energy for the initial fusion event comes from the accelerating of
protons through the large potential differences that occur on the inside of the cavitation bubbles that are
critical to the operation of the steam generator. Subsequent fusion events occur as a result of the energy from
the initial events being carried to other protons through virtual neutrino exchange...
Authors: K. O. Yurina, F. A. Bogdanova, D. M. Gromushkina,
Yu. V. Sten’kina,b, and O. B. Shchegolevb
Absract: The results of measurements of the spectrum of extensive air showers (EASs) by the
number of neutrons detected by the PRISMA-32 setup are presented. The neutron component is
formed during the interaction of high-energy shower hadrons with nuclei of atmospheric and Earth’s
surface atoms. The PRISMA-32 setup consists of 32 en-detectors and operates in the continuous
mode for about 5 years...
Authors: L. P. Babich1
Abstract: In view of the neutron flux enhancements observed in thunderstorms, a contribution of
thunderstorm neutrons to atmospheric radiocarbon (isotope 14
6 C) production is analyzed in connection
with the archaeometry. Herein, estimates of neutron fluence per lightning electromagnetic pulse in regions
with severe thunderstorm activity, at which a local rate of the 14
6 C production is comparable to the observed
rates, are shown to be consistent with the measured magnitudes of thunderstorm neutron fluence. At
present, available observations of atmospheric neutron and parent gamma ray flashes correlated with
thunderstorms do not allow making final conclusions about thunderstorm contributions to 14
6 C production.
For this, numerous studies of high-energy phenomena in thunderstorms are required, especially in the
tropical belt where the thunderstorm activity is especially severe and where the 14
6 C production by galactic
cosmic rays is almost independent of the solar activity disturbing the Earth’s magnetic field shielding the
Earth from cosmic rays...
Authors: Rutjes, Casper
Abstract: Thunderclouds are meteorological systems where significant electric charge is
separated by strong convection. The strong convection brings warm air, which
includes water vapor, to great heights. During the ascent into cooler regions, the
water vapor condenses and later freezes, releasing all its latent heat. This heat
powers the convection further. The ice particles formed at great heights eventually fall down again through the regions of ascending droplets. In these regions,
charge is separated between the two opposite moving populations of particles.
Much like a balloon rubbed by woolen cloth, charge is transferred on collision
from one to the other...
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/atmosres
Ground level gamma-ray and electric ﬁeld enhancements during disturbed
weather: Combined signatures from convective clouds, lightning and rain
Authors:Bruno Bartoli, Paolo Bernardini, Xiao-Hui Bi, Zheng Cao
Abstract: Thunderclouds are meterological systems, where significant electric charge is separated by strong convection...
Authors: Y. Wada1,2, G. Bowers3, T. Enoto4, M. Kamogawa5, Y. Nakamura6, T. Morimoto7,
D. M. Smith8, Y. Furuta1, K. Nakazawa9, T. Yuasa10, A. Matsuki11, M. Kubo12,
T. Tamagawa2, K. Makishima13and H. Tsuchiya14
Abstract: An on-ground observation program for high energy atmospheric phenomena in winter thunderstorms along Japan Sea has been performed via measurements of gamma-ray radiation,
atmospheric electric field and low-frequency radio band. On February 11, 2017, the radiation detectors recorded gamma-ray emission lasting for 75 sec. The gamma-ray spectrum
extended up to 20 MeV and was reproduced by a cuto power-law model with a photon index of 1.36+0.03 0.04, being consistent with a Bremsstrahlung radiation from a thundercloud (as
known as a gamma-ray glow and a thunderstorm ground enhancement). Then the gamma-ray
glow was abruptly terminated with a nearby lightning discharge...
Authors: L. P. Babich
Abstract: Thunderstorms are some of natures most spectacular phenomena. Almost a century ago, it was suggested that the strong electric fields in thunderclouds could accelerate electrons in the atmosphere and induce nuclear reactions1. However, these processes have been difficult to confirm experimentally. On page 481, Enoto et al. 2 report the first conclusive observational evidence for thunderstorms-produced nuclear reactions - with implications for our understanding of Earth's atmosphere and isotopic composition...
Authors: Yuuki Wada,1, 2 Teruaki Enoto,3 Yoshihiro Furuta,4 Kazuhiro Nakazawa,5 Takayuki Yuasa,6 Takahiro Matsumoto,1
Daigo Umemoto,7 Kazuo makishima,2, 1, 8 Harufumi Tsuchiya,9 and the GROWTH collaboration
Abstract: The Gamma-Ray Observation of Winter Thunderclouds (GROWTH) collaboration has been performing observation campaigns of high-energy radiation in coastal areas of Japan Sea. Winter
thunderstorms in Japan have unique characteristics such as frequent positive-polarity discharges,
large discharge current, and low cloud bases. These features allow us to observe both long-duration
gamma-ray bursts and lightning-triggered short-duration bursts at sea level. In 2015, we started
a mapping observation project using multiple detectors at several new observation sites. We have
developed brand-new portable gamma-ray detectors and deployed in the Kanazawa and Komatsu
areas as well as the existing site at Kashiwazaki. During three winter seasons from 2015, we have
detected 27 long-duration bursts and 8 short-duration bursts...
Authors: G. Diniz1,2, C. Rutjes2
, U. Ebert2,3, I.S. Ferreira1
Abstract: Cold electron run-away means that free electrons in gases are
accelerated from eV energies to energies above tens of keV by electric fields
where they can be accelerated further. To run away, the electrons need to
overcome a barrier at intermediate energies where they can lose much energy in collisions. When they have reached the run-away regime, they can
produce high energy radiation by bremsstrahlung that can be detected as
(terrestrial) gamma-ray flashes. When can thermal electrons from active discharges like streamers and leaders reach the run-away regime? The deterministic approach to this question is based on an energy dependent electron
friction that has to be overcome by electric acceleration...
Authors: Jianyong Cen, Qiang Hou, Ping Yuan, Jinjun Zhang, Minna Sun, Junxing Pan, and Zengli Cao
Abstract: The time-resolved spectrum of a lightning stepped leader in downward process has
been obtained by using a slitless spectrograph. Neutral oxygen and nitrogen spectral
lines in the near infrared region are observed in the spectra. The electron density of the
lightning stepped leader was calculated by using the Stark broadening of the oxygen
spectral lines at 777.4 and 844.6 nm. The evolution characteristic of the electron
density with time and channel height of the lightning stepped leader was analysed.
The results shown that the electron density of the lightning stepped leader was in the
order of 1018 cm-3...
Authors: X.X. Zhou∗
, X.J. Wang, D.H. Huang, H.Y. Jia
Abstract: Monte Carlo simulations are performed to study the correlation between the ground cosmic ray intensity
and near-earth thunderstorms electric field at YBJ (located at YangBaJing, Tibet, China, 4300 m a. s. l.).
The variations of the secondary cosmic ray intensity are found to be highly dependent on the strength
and polarity of the electric field. In negative fields and in positive fields greater than 600 V/cm, the total
number of ground comic ray positrons and electrons increases with increasing electric field strength. And
these values increase more obviously when involving a shower with lower primary energy or a higher
zenith angle. While in positive fields ranging from 0 to 600 V/cm, the total number of ground comic
ray positrons and electrons declines and the amplitude is up to 3.1% for vertical showers. A decrease of
intensity occurs in inclined showers within the range of 0−500 V/cm, which is accompanied by smaller
amplitudes. In this paper, the intensity changes are analyzed, especially concerning those decreasing phenomena in positive electric fields...
Authors: Y. Wada 1,2, G. S. Bowers2, T. Enoto4, M. Kamogawa5, Y. Nakamura6, T. Morimoto7, D. M. Smith8, Y. Furuta1, K. Nakazawa9, A. Matsuki11, M. Kubo12, T. Tamagawa2, K. Makishima13, and H. Tcuchiya14
Abstract: An on-ground observation program for high - energy atmospheric phenomena in winter thunderstorms along the Japan Sea has been performed via measurements of gamma ray radiation, atmospheric electric field, and low- frequency radio band. On 11 February 2017, the radiation detectors recorded gamma ray emission lasting for 75 s, and then abruptly terminated with a nearby lightning discharge...
Authors: Rakesh K. Pandey, Yajuan Sun, Hideyuki Nakanishi, and Siowling Soh
Abstract: Surface of almost all types of materials are often charged easily by contact electrification or deposition of ions; surface charge is ubiquitous and has a vast range of influences in our lives and in industry...
Authors: Manoj Kumar Paras1 and Pooja Rani2
Abstract: Lightning discharge is a spectacular, luminous and one of the most dangerous short lived phenomenon which occurs in the Earth's atmosphere ranging from troposphere to the lower ionosphere...
64. Characterizing Upward Lightning With and Without a Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flash
Authors: D. M. Smith1, G. S. Bowers2, M. Kamogawa3, D. Wang4, T. Ushio5, J. Ortberg1, J. R. Dwyer6, and M. Stock
Abstract: We compare two observations of gamma rays before, during, and after lightning flashes initiated by upward leaders from a tower during low- altitude winter thunderstorms on the western coast of Honshu, Japan,. While the two leaders appear similar, one produced a terrestrial gamma ray flash (TGF) so bright that it paralyzed the gamma ray detectors while it was occuring and could be observed only via the weaker flux of neutrons created in its wake, while the other produced no detectable TGF gamma rays at all...
65. Hige-energy photos connected to atmospheric precipitations
Authors: A. V. Germanenko, Yu. V. Balabin. E. V. Vashenyuk, B. B. Gvozdevsky, and L. I. Schur
Abstract: . Increases in intensity of X-radiation in the ground
layer of the atmosphere observed during various atmospheric
phenomena in two points: Apatity (Kola Peninsula) and Barentsburg (Spitsbergen) have been studied. A clear relationship between the increases and such atmospheric phenomena as rain and snowfall has been found. It is shown that
these increases are not connected with any radionuclides.
This research suggests that the principal cause of high-energy
photons increase during precipitations are bremsstrahlung
X−rays created by energetic electrons accelerated by electric fields in the clouds....
66. THE WATER CHERENKOV DETECTOR IN THE AUGER EXPERIMENT
Authors: Thomas J. Kutter
Abstract: An array of 1600 water Cherenkov detectors (WCDs) will form the bachbone of the Pierre Auger Observatory whose goal is to investigate the nature and origin of cosmic rays with primary energies above 10 19 eV. The detection of extensive air showers (EAS) by means of Chewrenkov light produced in water filled tanks is a technigue...
67. HIGH ENERGY EMISSIONS FROM THUNDERSTORMS:HEETS, FROM PHOTONS TO NEUTRONS TOWARD THE GROUND
Authors: Gabriel Sousa Diniz
Abstract: Thunderstorms are the starting point of several intense phenomena such as gamma rays and X rays, neutron, positron and electron emissions. The X rays and gamma rays have energies that may reach 100 MeV. The neutron emissions may be created by energetic gamma ray photons interacting with the air via Giant Dipole Resonance, a photonuclear reaction, related to thunderstorms and lightning in a way that is not completely understood yet. In this work neutrons were assumed to be created by gamma ray photons in the energy range of 10-30 MeV emitted by leader discharges.