Atmospheric gamma ray

1.Airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy for modelingcosmic radiation and effective dose in the lower atmosphere.

Authors: Marica Baldoncini, Matteo Alberi, Carlo Bottardi, Brian Minty, Kassandra G.C. Raptis, Virginia Strati and  Fabio Mantovani

Abstract: In this paper we present the results of a ∼5 hour airborne gamma-ray survey carried out over the Tyrrhenian sea in which the height range (77-3066) m has been investigated. Gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements have been performed by using the AGRS 16L detector, a module of four 4L NaI(Tl) crystals. The experimental setup was mounted on the Radgyro, a prototype aircraft designed for multisensorial acquisitions in the field of proximal remote sensing. By acquiring high-statistics spectra over the sea (i.e. in the absence of signals having geological origin) and by spanning a wide spectrum of altitudes it has been possible to split the measured count rate into a constant aircraft component and a cosmic component exponentially increasing with increasing height...

2.Guidelines for radioelement mapping using gamma ray spectrometry data.

Authors: G. Erdi-Krausz, M. Matolin, B. Minty,  J.-P. Nicolet, W.S. Reford, E. Schetselaar,

Abstract:Gamma rays are the most penetrating radiation from natural and man-made sources, and gamma ray spectrometry is a powerful tool for the monitoring and assessment of the radiation environment. Gamma ray surveys are carried out from aircraft, field vehicles, on foot, in boreholes, on the sea bottom and in laboratories. Ground and airborne gamma ray measurements cover large areas of the earth’s surface, and many national and regional radiometric maps have been compiled and published. Standardized maps of terrestrial radiation and radioelement concentrations can be compared and regionally unified, showing general regional trends in radionuclide distribution and making the radiological assessment of the environment possible...

3.Low-Energy Gamma Radiation in the Atmosphere at Midlatitudes.

Authors: P•. C. I-IAYMES, $. W,. GLENN, 1 G. J. FISHMAN, AND F. R. I-IARNDEN, JR.

Abstract: Balloon-borne experiments with directional scintillators that measured the spectrum of gamma radiation with energies between 30 and 570 key in the atmosphere up to 130,000 feet were conducted during 1967 and 1968. These data are of interest in connection with under-standing the origin of atmospheric photons and with estimating planetary and stellar gamma albedos, as well as effecting improvements in gamma-ray astronomy. The measurements, conducted in the United States and in Australia, showed that a continuum and structure are present at depths X greater than 90 g cm-•; the intensity of the continuum depends exponentially on depth for X _• 102 gcm -•, but the shape is relatively depth-independent. The spectrum softens considerably at lesser depths...

4.Satellite Observation Of Atmospheric Nuclear Gamma Radiation.

Authors: John R. Letaw, G. H. Share, R. L. Kinzer, R. Silberberg. E. L. Chupp, D. J. Forrest, E. Reiger

Abstract: We present a satellite observation of the spectrum of gamma radiation from the Earth's atmosphere in the energy interval from 300 keV to 8.5 MeV. The data were accumulated by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission over three and one-half years, from 1980 to 1983. The excellent statistical accuracy of the data allows 20 atmospheric line features to be identified...

A) Book: Low Energy Gamma Rays In The Atmosphere.

Authors: Jerome S. Puskin

Introduction: With the advant of high-altitude balloons, rockets and satellites, it has been possible to extend astronomical observations into regions of the electromagnetic spectrum for wich the Earth's atmosphere is opaque. Besides supplementary infrared ultraviolet and radio work , these advances have given rise to the fields of x-ray and gamma ray astronomy. We shall focus, primarily on the low energy gamma ray region(.3-10Mev)...

B) Book:Gamma-Ray Spectrum Catalogue. 

Authors: R. L. HEATH

Abstract: This is a new electronic format edition of the Scintillation Spectrometry Gamma-ray Spectrum Catalogue. This edition is a revision of the original data compilation, which was issued as an AEC R & D Report (IDO-16880) in 1964. As in the
original catalogue, this edition contains a collection of spectra representing the response of a scintillation spectrometer to individual radioactive nuclides. In addition to the graphs representing the response of a 3"x 3" NaI detector in a standard geometrical arrangement, current nuclear data are presented which are based on the 1996 ENSDF data file. Each spectrum is accompanied by a decay scheme and a listing of gamma ray energies and intensities currently associated with the decay of that nuclide...